Whereas the previous theories had suggested the need for employees to be authoritatively controlled and guided, McGregor thought otherwise. But his thoughts were never widely published. He had a special interest in psychology and went to the Harvard University. This was an answer on the critics of. He noted that Theory Y is a theory of motivation not a theory of how to run a corporation.
There is a distinction between factors that cause or prevent job satisfaction or prevent job satisfaction. There is every indication that such programs will continue to increase, at least to the extent that evidence of their success begins to accumulate. As a result, Theory Y followers may have a better relationship with their boss, creating a healthier atmosphere in the workplace. Theory Y: The integration of individual and organizational goals. Implementing a system that is too soft could result in an entitled, low-output workforce.
In 20th century, there were several management theories proposed such as scientific management, administrative management, behavioural management, etc. These assumption automatically influenced workers productivity Kopelman, Prottas, Davis 2008; Tatham, Waldaman, Bennis 2010. International Journal of Recent Research Aspects. Theory X Theory X assumes that employees are naturally unmotivated and dislike working, and this encourages an authoritarian style of management. Theory x and theory y are still referred to commonly in the field of management and motivation, and whilst more recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, Mcgregor's X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques. This led companies to focus on how their employees were motivated, managed, and led, creating a Theory Y management style which focuses on the drive for individual self — fulfillment. McGregor's X-Y theory is a salutary and simple reminder of the natural rules for managing people, which under the pressure of day-to-day business are all too easily forgotten.
In Theory Y, the work tends to be organized around wider areas of skill or knowledge; Employees are also encouraged to develop expertise and make suggestions and improvements. The organization itself can be very large with many different complex and specialized departments under a hierarchy chain of command. He pointed out that the manager's own behaviour would be largely determined by the particular beliefs that he subscribed to. He went on to study philosophy and psychology at The… 1855 Words 8 Pages increased, people have been looking for ways to motivate employees and improve productivity. Management Style and Control In a Theory X organization, management is authoritarian, and centralized control is retained, whilst in Theory Y, the management style is participative: Management involves employees in decision making, but retains power to implement decisions. Rooted in the early industrial era, Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y contrasted two visions of the worker. This management style assumes that the typical worker has little ambition, avoids responsibility, and is individual-goal oriented.
After receiving his doctorate, Douglas McGregor stayed active in the academic world. The middle step is social class. Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as the 1 intensity of desire or need, 2 incentive or reward value of the goal, and 3 expectations of the individual and of his or her peers. Theory X explains the importance of heightened supervision, external rewards, and penalties, while Theory Y highlights the motivating role of and encourages workers to approach tasks without direct. After viewing the way in which managers dealt with employees.
Theory Y Theory Y expounds a participative style of management that is de-centralized. Union-management cooperation: a psychological analysis. Theory Y basically believes that if you give the employee the opportunity to do well the employee will take that opportunity and use it to the best of their abilities. It is good practice to carry out a job analysis to contribute to the recruitment… 2603 Words 11 Pages Identify and compare the contributions of Taylor, Fayol and Mayo to management today. These studies deliver insights into the way employees perform at work and this gives the employer or the manager the techniques required to increase worker productivity.
First he earned his master M. Employees normally do not like to work and will try to avoid it. Variables Affecting Productivity Specifically, Elton Mayo wanted to find out what effect fatigue and monotony had on job productivity and how to control them through such variables as rest breaks, work hours, temperature and humidity. There are down to top approach in this theory. Although they 5478 Words 22 Pages Early insights around employee engagement originated with George Elton Mayo and his work at Hawthorne Works a General Electric Company in the 1920s. Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views of human beings: one basically negative, labeled Theory X, and the other basically positive, labeled Theory Y. Taken too literally, Theories X and Y seem to represent unrealistic extremes.
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The workplace lacks unvarying rules and practices, which could potentially be detrimental to the quality standards of the product and strict guidelines of a given company. Not surprisingly, workers under improved conditions produced more. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 8 2 , 55. Drawing on newly emerging psychological principles, Douglas McGregor's Theory Y offered a different model. Since employees dislike work, they must be coerced, controlled, or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. Information provided on the Business.