Power Generation West Bengal 3. Various estimates and projections indicate an increasing trend in water demand for agriculture, industrial and domestic uses in the coming decades. Ahmadnagar and Poona districts in Maharashtra, and in eastern part of Nilgiri and Cardamom hills, especially in Ramanathapuram, Madurai, Coimbatore and areas between Tiruchirapalli and Guntur. The method is however a common one in the U. Considering the gradual decrease of percentage share of tank irrigation to total irrigation, setting up of National Tank Development and Management Board under the central governance is now under serious consideration. Minor irrigation schemes tap small surface water sources as well as ground water. Under this canal, this immense quantity of water will be impounded by the H.
Kukadi Project Maharashtra : Five independent storage dams, i. To off-set the drastic reduction in irrigated areas great emphasis was placed on irrigation when an era of planning began in 1951. Natural resources in tropical countries. Forest Crops Teakwood, Bamboo etc. Major irrigation canals were built after millions of people died each in a series of major famines in the 19th century in British India. The canal, known as the Western Jumna Canal, built in the 14th century by Feroz-Shah Tuglak had been renovated during the reign of Akbar in 1568.
It takes water from the Bhakra dam and irrigates about 15 lakh hectares of land in the districts of Hissar and Rohtak in Haryana. The command area is served by 1,524 km long lined water courses. Thus, the area covered by well irrigation has increased from 29 per cent of the net cropped area to 48 per cent and out of which tube wells accounted nearly 26 per cent of the total irrigated area. Such water if not present in the soil naturally, may be applied by irrigation or be derived directly from rainfall during the crop season. This water is distributed through 432 km long canals to irrigate about 40,000 hectares of land in Madurai, and Ramanathapuram districts.
A project costing more than Rs 5 crores was previously called a major project and others were called medium projects. Rongtong Hydel Project Spiti 1. But there is no rainfall during winter months in several places. Medium-Command 5000 to 10,000ha 3. It was said that the recurrence of famines in 1897 and 1900 proved to be a blessing in disguise for the cultivators in India.
Water management in India thus comprises of irrigation and drainage or both. It merges with the Lower Ganga canal. In West Bengal, Orissa and Bihar tanks are mostly of excavated type and used also for raising fish besides irrigation. The rivers are small to big and accordingly dams of various sizes and capacity are built. In 1900, British India including Bangladesh and Pakistan had about 13 million ha under irrigation. Its existence could be traced back to centuries before the Christian era.
Farming shifted to another piece of land. Sectors like pharmaceuticals, power, food processing and agriculture feel the brunt of poor water quality. Mahanadi Reservoir Project Madhya Pradesh : It has three phases: 1 Ravishankar Sagar Project and feeder canal system for supply of water of Bhilai Steel Plant and Sandur dam across Sandur village. However, since 80% of the annual rainfall is received in less than four months, multiple cropping is generally not possible. India, by virtue of its peculiar placement in the foothills of the Himalayas and the Deccan Plateau running through it, has vast water resources which have been very meagrely tapped. The old traditions were maintained by the various rulers throughout the history.
Since then the irrigated area under canal irrigation increased, but its share declined in 2009-10 irrigation increased area upto under 16697 thousand hectare. Gandak Project Joint project of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh : Nepal also derives irrigation and power benefits form this project. Between 1860 and 1880, several important works, like the Lower Ganges Canal and the Agra Canal in U. Although the art of irrigation does not end here the responsibility of engineers is fulfilled at this point whereas that of agricultural scientists begins. Extension Programmes: Necessary steps be taken to launch the extension programmes for educating the farmers on maximum possible utilisation of irrigation water and for adopting multiple cropping system and also on other techniques of crop management.
Secondly, every crop requires a certain quantity of water after certain fixed intervals of time till the crop matures. Canals: Canals are the most important means of irrigation in the country. Such devices as the shaduf, the Archimedean Screw and various kinds of water wheel or treadmill have been in use for thousands of years. The command of each well is very small 5 to 10 ha but the number of wells is very large. Water is more important than even land because when irrigated the productivity of soil rises almost six times. The gross command area of various irrigation works did not always equal the net increase in irrigated area despite encouragement of the Government.
Thus, irrigation is essential for the general growth of the plants. Sprays and sprinklers are set up in the fields and supplied with water by hoses from public water supplies. The important well-irrigated States are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. The left bank canal is 137 km long and is used for navigation. Canals taken out from the barrage irrigate about 2. Removing Regional Imbalances: Government should take necessary steps for removing the regional imbalances in respect of development of irrigation potential by developing new projects in neglected drought prone areas. Well irrigation is becoming the popular method of irrigation all over the country.
Works constructed in the greater part of Bengal, in the Bombay Deccan and Gujarat in the Central Provinces, and up- country Madras were neither productive nor protective. These crops generally need frequent watering which can only be managed through an efficient and reliable system of irrigation. Irrigation Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan etc. Shorter Period of Rainfall: In India, the period of rainfall is very much concentrated to a shorter period ranging from June to September. Some protective works were undertaken out of the newly created Famine Relief and Insurance Fund. Well irrigation is of importance in: i that part of the Ganga valley which is in close proximity to the north-east and eastern extension of the Deccan, such as, the eastern districts of U.