The execution takes place far away. Allemagne nazie et le génocide juif, Gallimard-Le Seuil, Paris1985, page 19. One would think or at least hope that anyone in that position would immediately avoid having to play the role of executioner for thousands of innocent people. Unknown men arrived, carried out their murderous task, and left. But he was not to do it in the way the Germans were doing it in the Soviet Union. By the end of 1942, the total strength of the Order Police in die General Government had reached 15,186 men. When the stadium was nearly filled, Bach-Zelewski visited the site, and valuables were collected from the Jews.
In September the battalion provided cordon, escort, and shooters for the execution of thousands of Jews in Berdichev and Vinnitsa. Hans-Ulrich Wehler, The German Empire Leamington Spa, 1985. His daily reports from March 26 to September 21, 1943, reflect a total of 1,094 Jews killed by his unit, for an average of nearly 14 Jews per policeman. Browning does note, throughout the book, examples of those who overcame the psychological dynamics at play and refused to participate in one way or another — but chillingly, all too few did this. As in Milgram's experiment without direct surveillance, many policemen did not comply with orders when not directly supervised; they mitigated their behavior when they could do so without personal risk but were unable to refuse participation in the battalion's killing operations openly. Choices that include killing Jews in a firing squad to transporting Jews to Concentration Camps. Ordinary Men asks what happens to the people who perpetuate a genocide.
Lacking documentary evidence for this, they tend to focus, like Goldhagen, on the idea that the Germans uniformly lusted to kill Jews, as a result of German social psychology. However, certain theories are more popular than others. All the men in Battalion 101 had the option to exempt themselves from the killings on numerous occasions. The fourth is anti-Semitism, conditioned by years of Nazi propaganda or, perhaps, as discussed below, by the German social culture and pysche itself, not merely by Nazism. And to treat them as human beings… then you are faced with that uncomfortable awareness that: Are they fundamentally different than I am? With the change of engine in Lemberg, such an old engine was hooked up that further travel was possible only with continuous interruptions.
Despite German reversals in the war, and despite the need for the Jews' labor, Himmler was determined to finish them off. Hie grave was a big zigzag-shaped series of slit trenches about three meters wide and three to four meters deep. Pale and nervous, with choking voice and tears in his eyes, Trapp visibly fought to control himself as he spoke. Here, in their own words, are a bunch of people who did what they were told, because that's what they were told to do-- and we can ask why they didn't question it, but speculation is all you'll come up with. They were certainly not front line troops suffering from any type of combat fatigue.
It was in the course of investigating various crime complexes in the district of Lublin that Ludwigsburg investiga- tors first encountered several witnesses from Reserve Police Battalion 101. Even fewer had violent or sadistic tendencies. These books deal with the question of whether or not the average German soldiers and civilians were responsible for the holocaust. The effects of twenty-five years of lemory loss and distortion, even when not feigned for judicial mvenience, were equally important. Most of these men became the permanent Security Police force in the areas of the 1939-41 Soviet occupation zone in former eastern Poland, while the original four Einsatzgruppen pressed deep into Russia behind the advancing German armies.
This file contains the spondence of the Order Police in Vienna concerning the guarding of msh transports to various places in Poland, Minsk Maly-Trostinez , and ;sienstadt from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1943. Instead he remained in Jozefow because he allegedly could not bear the sight. For in the end, the sanctuary of the labor camps and work ghettos was only temporary. When I read it, some years ago now, it changed me. In summation, lol we have other books to read for this class so I'll just stick to those for the time being. They were replaced by middle-aged reservists drafted in the fall of 1939. Not everyone blindly followed orders.
At least two anthologies of responses to Hitlers Willing Executioners have already appeared: Julius H. I immediately lodged the sharpest protest against this, in which I emphasized that a liquidation of the Jews could not take place arbitrarily. Some 5,300 Jews were actually assembled there at the appointed time. None- theless, in some two hundred issues altogether, relatively little space was devoted explicitly to anti-Semitism and the Jewish question. They were sent back to Zamosc in the southern part of the district to take part in the expulsion of Poles from villages as part of Himmler's and Globocnik's plan for a pure German settlement area deep in Poland. His final chapter and afterword -- in which he responds to Daniel Jonah Goldhagen's attacks on his scholarship -- are superb.
Ordinary Men is the disconcerting examination of how a typical unit of middle-aged reserve policemen became active participants in the slaughter of tens of thousands of Polish Jews. Browning looks at the experiences of men in the Order Police assigned to Nazi-occupied Poland, not as frontline soldiers but as occupiers of conquered territory. What choices, if any, did they have, and how did they respond? He then turned to the matter at hand. If Trapp was a weak immediate authority figure, he did invoke a more distant system of authority that was anything but weak. Apparently this was one of the few battalions whose membership list was extant at that time, hence the focus on this battalion. But it suffices when I emphasize that long after being thrown in the grave, some of those shot worked their way out again.
Browning's research is impeccable and his results terrifying. Browning indaga, presenta fonti e materiali, introduce ipotesi e interpretazioni diverse, critica e polemizza, sempre lontanissimo dalla retorica, sempre a ciglio asciutto. One simply could not do without the Jewish craftsmen, because they were indispensable for the maintenance of the economy. A young man stepped forward and said that he was a Pole : who had hidden there in order to be with his bride. It seems like something similar went on here. Wilhelm s study is based on much more plentiful contemporary documentation than exists for Reserve Police Battalion 101. It hung on their clothing.