The original plan had been to revise the Articles of Confederation, but that proved impossible, so they started from scratch. Andrew Johnson's conservative view of Reconstruction did not include blacks or former slaves involvement in government and he refused to heed Northern concerns when southern state legislatures implemented that set the status of the freedmen much lower than that of citizens. Apart from being required to uphold the abolition of slavery in compliance with the to the , swear loyalty to the Union and pay off war debt, southern state governments were given free reign to rebuild themselves. Successes Despite these failures, important landmarks in civil rights for black Americans were reached at that time. Upon in April 1865, Andrew Johnson of Tennessee, who had been elected with Lincoln in 1864 as vice president, became president. Reforging the White Republic: Race, Religion, and American Nationalism, 1865—1898 2005. Its members waged an underground campaign of intimidation and violence directed at white and black Republican leaders.
One historical camp argues that Lincoln's flexibility, pragmatism, and superior political skills with Congress would have solved Reconstruction with far less difficulty. Too harsh of a punishment for the Confederates would just cause an elevated sense of hatred and unnecessary sectionalism, making the South feel more oppressed than they already do. The Selected Papers of Thaddeus Stevens 2 vols 1998 , 900pp; his speeches plus and letters to and from Stevens. While spending on education was reduced, financial penalties against African Americans skyrocketed. Lincoln put all factions in his cabinet, including Radicals like , whom he later appointed Chief Justice of the , and Secretary of War. Black churches and schools were burned, teachers were attacked, and freedpeople who refused to show proper deference were beaten and killed. This implies that the intent is to have a passive effect on the nature of the government's responsibility in our lives.
After four years of fighting between the Union and the Confederacy in the American Civil War, it was finally decided in 1864 that the 11 southern states that seceded from the nation would be restored into the Union once again. Army troops no longer supported Republican state governments. Full federal enforcement of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments did not reoccur until after passage of legislation in the mid-1960s as a result of the. The major outcome of Reconstruction was that all of the Confederatestates were admitted back into the Union, thus once again creatinga whole United States. When freed, many made official marriages.
Congress, however, controlled by the Radicals, had other plans. They used intimidation and outright attacks to run Republicans out of office and repress voting by blacks, leading to white Democrats regaining power by the elections of the mid-to-late 1870s. As a result, black preachers continued to insist that God would protect and help him; God would be their rock in a stormy land. Doing so would keep the Southerners from repealing the laws if they ever won control of Congress. Racism was still a potent force in both South and North, and Republicans became more conservative and less egalitarian as the decade continued.
He worked with Congress to create the and Office of , led by Attorney General and the first Solicitor General. Yet, various individuals and political parties held a plethora of contrasting beliefs concerning how to face this reconstruction task. The Bureau protected the legal rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts, and set up schools and churches for them. Questions for Discussion Read the document introduction and the excerpt, and apply your knowledge of American history in order to answer the questions that follow. During the war, a war among pro- and anti-Union Indians had raged. After, the Federal Government dictated how states could apply the Bill of Rights. Responses of the Presidents to Charges of Misconduct.
By 1867, they defined terms for suffrage for freed slaves and limited early suffrage for many ex-Confederates. Some revenue also came from. The earliest historians to study Reconstruction and the Radical Republican participation in it were members of the led by and. While African Americans were still permitted to cast votes, they did so under harsh requirements or the fear of potential repercussions. Historian argues: What remains certain is that Reconstruction failed, and that for blacks its failure was a disaster whose magnitude cannot be obscured by the genuine accomplishments that did endure. The organization of the Ku Klux Klan coincided with the beginning of the second phase of post-, put into place by the more radical members of the Republican Party in Congress.
However, Johnson was so inept as a politician he was unable to form a cohesive support network. As a general, Ulysses S. After the end of the Civil War, the United States went into an era known as Reconstruction to rebuild and establish pro-union governments in the south. The bill also required that the state constitutional conventions abolish slavery. During the war, Radical Republicans opposed Lincoln's initial selection of General for top command of the major eastern and his efforts to bring seceded Southern states back into the Union as quickly and easily as possible.
White elite-dominated state legislatures passed disfranchising constitutions from 1890 to 1908 that effectively barred most blacks and many poor whites from voting. The cases of Klan-related violence became more isolated in the decades to come, though fragmented groups became aligned with neo-Nazi or other right-wing extremist organizations from the 1970s onward. The Democrats had little leverage—they could delay Hayes' election, but they could not put their man in the White House. . The laws allowed the confiscation of lands for colonization from those who aided and supported the rebellion.
Basically, this clause means that the government should insure a level playing field. Before the war, the population of slaves had been counted as three-fifths of a corresponding number of free whites. Trefousse, The Radical Republicans 1969 p. Historian , associated with the early 20th-century , describes the mounting anger of Southern whites: The Negro troops, even at their best, were everywhere considered offensive by the native whites. President Grant had already removed troops from Florida, before Hayes was inaugurated, and troops from the other Reconstruction states had long since been withdrawn. Voting standards were also curbed under the Redeemer faction. Congress also clarified the scope of the federal writ of to allow federal courts to vacate unlawful state court convictions or sentences in 1867 28 U.