Whether we have the freedom at the Provincial level of moving at a rate that is locally appropriate on, say, the ordination of women, is an important question. They had no Executive Council for their help and no separate military or civil service under their control. We did not want to spare the diehards as we had to talk in a different language… These various meetings — and in due course G. Some would maintain the general control by the Government of India over financial policy as well, but would confide greater liberty to the Local Governments in the management of the details. The description of some of the most distinctive features of the culture of French Canada constituted one of the most interesting parts of the Report. At the same time, they try to embarrass Covenant opponents as belonging to churches that are self-absorbed whenever they protest the loss of local control that the Covenant would effect.
Since then the Provincial Governments have gradually achieved freedom from superior control in legislative, financial and administrative spheres. By no stretch of the imagination could the provinces discharge their responsibilities, limited as they were originally, except with the financial help of the federal government. Subordinate governments were not competent by law to create any new office or grant gratuity or allowance to any person without the previous assent of the Supreme Government, which, in its turn, had to submit all such proposals for the sanction or confirmation of the Court of Directors. Canadians and Maritimers also feared that the American troops might turn right around, once the South had been liquidated, and attack Canada; if they did not, perhaps the would do it and it was generally felt that if the British colonies united that they would be capable of opposing a more formidable force. Hence it may be supposed that these words were intended to point out the direction in which the aspiration of political India could look for fruition.
Such is the scheme now under discussion by this House. But for larger loans sanction had to be taken after 1877 and for all loans before that year. Constant wars during the last twenty years of the Company's rule accentuated the need for this control. Thus, they were not meant to be a sign of a subordinate status for the provinces. To Upper Canadians, it only seemed a fair, and democratic system, devised to prevent the domination of Lower Canadians in the parliament of the United province. It was too early, therefore, for the establishment of the autonomous provincial administrations grouped in a federation. There was no diminution of the legal powers of the Local Governments; on the contrary, in many cases these powers were enlarged.
In services like education or municipal administration the Government of India, from time to time, laid down general principles for the guidance of the Local Governments and left the details to be worked out by them. Most people seemed to expect them to develop representative institutions. But the prosperity was very temporary. Also notifications leaving certain Judgeships in each province to be filled by the Local Government from among the provincial service officers. The people of every section must feel that they are protected, and by no overstraining of central authority should such guarantees overridden. Land revenue, Administration, Law and Justice and Miscellaneous were the additional heads of expenditure which were transferred to N, W. The only change was in the degree of the superior control not in its character.
En réalité celui-ci conserverait le même contrôle qui lui est décerné dans le plan élaboré par la convention. Public Proceedings, 26 March 1868. But the change was in fact quantitative not qualitative. The local legislatures passed laws relating to subjects of local concern. These rules were as good as law.
Finally, the demand for representative councils controlling the executive government of the country was raised by the politically- minded public opinion of India. It was customary for the Government of India after 1887 to review the jail reports of the different provinces not separately but in one survey which compared the administration of one province with another and issued general directions for the removal of the defects. This may be regarded as the first conscious move made by the Supreme Government in the direction of centralisation. In reality, the Federation, as planned in the Act, almost certainly was not viable and would have rapidly broken down with the British left to pick up the pieces without any viable alternative. The book owes much to their sympathy and guidance.
Throughout the Law, references are made to maintaining the unity of the Republic, promoting economic development and respecting the sovereignty of the people. The permanent settlement was generally welcomed, but certain shortcomings were pointed out at the same time. The previous sanction or subsequent confirmation by the Governor General in Council was required for the proceedings of the Local Legislative, Government under many Acts, the most important being those which related to their legislative powers. On the other hand, few in Lower Canada saw much intrinsic validity in a federal system. If you look at the constitution it looks as if all the powers are vested in the Governor-General and the Governor. Moreover it was the sole legislative and the final financial authority.
It is that aspect, and the increasingly large share of taxes that the federal government raised to support its purposes, which Duplessis wished the Commission to address. Bombay Association Petition to Parliament in 1852. In fact, the Congress High Command was able to control the provincial ministries and to force their resignation in 1939. I am assured by well-informed people that the Covenant shouldn't have any implications for Establishment in the Church of England. The Report was hardly distributed, remained largely unavailable, locked up in the basement of the National Assembly of Quebec.
However, division between Congress and Muslim representatives proved to be a major factor in preventing agreement as too much of the important detail of how federation would work in practice. In practice the lieutenant-governor's constitutional responsibilities are limited by the conventions of responsible government and conducted on the advice of the premier. It found that it had been the design of the to create a federal state, despite some strong centralising features in the. A provincial legislature is defined, for lawmaking purposes, as being composed of the lieutenant-governor and the provincial Legislative Assembly in the same way that the central Parliament is composed of the Crown, and. Laing's project, and concluded that where the earlier one contemplated new local taxation for fresh expenditure, Mr.
In order to guard these, they gave the powers stated to Local Legislatures, but the General Government had power to sweep these away. The third characteristic is crucial as true federalism cannot exist if one of the two levels of government is permitted to unilaterally alter the distribution of powers or any other provisions that are part of the union agreement. Classical Latin provincialis seems not to have had this tinge. Taken in this sense, it would be difficult to consider that any political entity is entirely autonomous, independent; we live in a greatly inter-dependent world, where interaction of governments and people make it very difficult for any state to be entirely independent. That Government was not prepared to alter this system.